Logo

How does Europe write?

European Spelling

In the columns titled with 'LSJscript' you can find the components of european spelling, in the columns 'LSJphon' and 'IPA' their pronounciation. The national articulation habits may deviate, p. e.: in some languages the letter 'l' (resp. 'л') is articulated 'dark' (from IPA [ɫ] down to [w]) and only in palatalized form ('lj' resp. 'ль') 'bright' (IPA [l]), meanwhile other languages then pronounce it already as IPA [ʎ] or even [lj]. The representative spelling code LSJscript as well as the therefrom deduced phonetic alphabet LSJphon are providing tolerances of sound interpretation to the individual languages and their pronounciation habits (dialects) and only generally constatate that Europe makes a difference between a darker and a brighter form of the 'l'.

Further clarifications:

  1. cea, ceo and ceu are pronounced [tsa],[tso] and [tsu], unless written céa, céo, céu.
  2. é, ë and ó are pronounced short if not emphasized. If emphasized, they're pronounced long.
  3. Each vowel can be extented by a length bar (i. e. á, é, í, ó, ú, ý), whereby e and o are changing their pronounciation. The vowel variations ae, ao, oe and ue are written long by marking their first graphem (i. e. áe, áo, óe, úe).
  4. The vowel variations ae, ao, oe, ue get split up by any diacritic sign on the second graphem (aé, aó, oé, ué or aë, oë, uë)
  5. All vowels and vowel variation may also be nasalized by a postpositioned nasalization-n:

For empty table cells assured data were not yet available. In case of tables not being displayed distinctly enough, click here for fullscreen display in a new window .


(c) Erhard Steller 2013

(c) Erhard Steller 2013